Somaliland: A Democracy Without Women Representation


Somalilandsun: An inclusive democracy means that all citizens should feel represented and be heard.
However, many political systems sometimes exclude women and minority from the
decision-making platforms, while other countries elect women to be their head of states
or head of governments. As of June 2020, 19 out of 193 countries have female head of
states. Ethiopia is the only country in Africa that has a female Head of State.

On the global Parliaments, 25% of 39,202 of Lower House members of 190 countries
were women. Rwanda has the highest number of women in parliament 27 out of the 193 countries have less than 10% female representation in their Lower House

In Horn of Africa, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia has more than 24% female
representation in their parliament, while Somaliland has the lowest representation when
it comes to the women’s political participation in both appointive positions and elected
Quota systems and commitments from the leaders have increased that more women
are elected in the parliaments of Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia. The three countries
have adopted different quota systems and policies to empower women and increase
their political participation.

Somaliland reclaimed its independence on May 1991. After 10 years of having clanbased selection system, finally the people of Somaliland conducted the referendum of
the constitution on March 2001. For the last 18 years Somaliland was practicing the
democratization system, and the people elected the House of Representatives, the
president and the local councils.
Although women are nearly 50% of the voters, Somaliland’s Democratization system
failed to empower women and to include the decision-making platforms. Compared to
the other countries of the region, Somaliland has the lowest women representation. For
Example, the Somaliland’s 82 members of the House of Representatives, women have
only 1 member, while there is NO single female member in the House of Elders. On
the Executive branch, women hold two cabinet ministers out of the 23 ministries. All
three political parties are led by men.
In this comparative analysis report, The Center for Policy Analysis-CPA will assess how Somaliland Democracy is failing to represent the women.